Womens Health Clinic Blog

Understanding and Managing Menstrual Pain

Understanding and Managing Menstrual Pain

Every month, millions around the world experience a natural process known as menstruation. While it is a normal part of a reproductive cycle, it can also bring along discomfort and pain for many. One of the most common issues associated with menstruation is dysmenorrhoea, which refers to painful menstrual cramps. In this article, we will delve into the causes, symptoms, and management strategies for dysmenorrhoea.

Causes of Dysmenorrhoea:

Primary Dysmenorrhoea:

This type of dysmenorrhoea occurs without any underlying medical condition. It is believed to be caused by the release of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that trigger uterine contractions. Excessive prostaglandin production can lead to intense cramping and pain during menstruation.

Secondary Dysmenorrhoea:

Unlike primary dysmenorrhoea, secondary dysmenorrhoea is caused by an underlying medical condition. Conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease, and adenomyosis can contribute to the development of secondary dysmenorrhoea. In these cases, the pain is often more severe and may require medical intervention.

Symptoms of Dysmenorrhoea:

The symptoms of dysmenorrhoea can vary from person to person, but common signs include:

Menstrual cramps

These are often described as a dull, throbbing pain in the lower abdomen. The severity of the cramps can range from mild to debilitating.

Back pain

Many women experience lower back pain during their period cycle, which can be a result of the uterine contractions.

Nausea and vomiting

Some women may experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting during their period.


Hormonal changes during menstruation can trigger headaches or migraines in some women.

Fatigue and mood changes:

The hormonal fluctuations during menstruation can also lead to fatigue, irritability, and mood swings.

Managing Dysmenorrhoea:

While dysmenorrhoea can be challenging to deal with, there are several management strategies that can help alleviate the pain and discomfort:

Over-the-counter pain relievers:

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or naproxen sodium can help reduce inflammation and relieve menstrual cramps. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult a healthcare professional if needed.

Heat therapy:

Applying a heating pad or taking a warm bath can help relax the muscles and provide relief from menstrual cramps.


Engaging in light exercises such as walking or gentle stretching can help improve blood circulation and reduce cramping.

Dietary changes:

Some studies suggest that reducing the intake of caffeine, salt, and processed foods can help alleviate menstrual pain. Incorporating foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as salmon and flaxseeds, may also be beneficial.

Hormonal birth control:

For women with severe dysmenorrhoea, hormonal birth control methods such as oral contraceptives or intrauterine devices (IUDs) can help regulate hormonal fluctuations and reduce menstrual pain.

Alternative therapies:

Techniques like acupuncture, yoga, and meditation have shown promise in managing menstrual pain. These practices can help relax the body and reduce stress, which may contribute to the severity of dysmenorrhoea.

It is important to note that if the pain becomes severe or significantly impacts daily activities, it is advisable to seek medical attention. A gynaecologist can evaluate the underlying cause of dysmenorrhoea and recommend appropriate treatment options. Gynaecologists play a crucial role in management, especially when it is severe dysmenorrhoea or caused by an underlying medical condition.

Here are some ways in which we at Create Health can help manage dysmenorrhoea:

1. Medical History and Physical Examination:

We will start by taking a detailed medical history and conducting a physical examination. This helps them identify any underlying conditions that may be causing or contributing to dysmenorrhoea.

2. Diagnostic Tests:

In cases of secondary dysmenorrhoea, we may recommend additional diagnostic tests to identify the underlying cause. These tests may include ultrasound, hysteroscopy, or laparoscopy to evaluate the reproductive organs and detect conditions such as endometriosis, fibroids, or pelvic inflammatory disease.

3. Medications:

We can prescribe medications to help manage dysmenorrhoea. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly recommended to reduce pain and inflammation. Hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills or hormonal patches, can also be prescribed to regulate hormonal fluctuations and reduce menstrual pain.

4. Hormonal Therapy:

For women with severe dysmenorrhoea caused by conditions like endometriosis, gynaecologists may recommend hormonal therapy. This can include the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists or progestin-only medications to suppress ovulation and reduce pain.

5. Surgical Interventions:

In cases where dysmenorrhoea is caused by structural abnormalities like uterine fibroids or adenomyosis, we may recommend surgical interventions. These can include procedures like myomectomy (removal of fibroids), endometrial ablation (removal of the uterine lining), or in severe cases, hysterectomy (removal of the uterus).

6. Lifestyle Modifications:

We can provide guidance on lifestyle modifications that can help manage dysmenorrhoea. This may include recommendations on diet, exercise, stress management techniques, and alternative therapies like acupuncture or yoga.

7. Patient Education and Support:

We play a vital role in educating patients about dysmenorrhoea, its causes, and management strategies. We can provide information on self-care measures, pain management techniques, and when to seek medical attention if the symptoms worsen.


If you are dealing with dysmenorrhoea, we encourage you to reach out and seek help from a gynaecologist. By understanding the underlying causes, recognising the symptoms, and exploring management strategies, you can proactively address the pain and discomfort associated with dysmenorrhea. As every case is unique, our compassionate gynaecologists will conduct a comprehensive assessment of your individual circumstances and tailor a treatment plan that aligns with your needs. With their guidance and expertise, there are ways to effectively manage and alleviate dysmenorrhea symptoms.

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